The Towers of Hanoi Java program is a visual representation of a classic puzzle known as the “Tower of Hanoi.” The puzzle involves three pegs and a set of disks of different sizes. The goal is to move the entire stack of disks from one peg to another, following specific rules:

This Java Program solves the Towers of Hanoi problem for a tower of 10 disks. Ten differently-sized disks are stacked in a pile, in order of decreasing size. There are two other places for piles. The object is to move the pile to the second available place, subject to the rules that only one disk at a time can be moved, and no disk can be piled on top of a smaller disk. The solution is shown as an animation. The Towers of Hanoi problem is a standard example of recursion.

Towers of Hanoi Animation

The main functionalities of the Towers of Hanoi program are:

  1. Hanoi Tower Animation: The program visualizes the Towers of Hanoi problem, displaying the three towers and a set of disks initially stacked in decreasing order of size on one of the towers.
  2. Recursive Solution: The program solves the Towers of Hanoi problem using recursion. The recursive algorithm moves the disks from one tower to another following the rules of the puzzle. It demonstrates the recursive nature of the problem-solving technique.
  3. Animation of Disk Movement: The movement of disks is animated, providing a visual representation of how the recursive algorithm works. Disks are displayed in different colors, and the program animates the process of moving a disk from one tower to another.
  4. User Interface (UI): The program uses Java’s Swing library to create a graphical user interface for the applet. It includes the main frame and draws the towers and disks within that frame. The UI is updated during the animation to reflect the current state of the Towers of Hanoi puzzle.
  5. Applet Lifecycle Management: The program utilizes the applet lifecycle methods (init(), start(), stop(), destroy()) for proper initialization, starting, stopping, and destruction of the applet. Additionally, the main method is provided to run the applet as a standalone application.
  6. Threading and Animation Timer: The program uses a java.lang.Thread to control the animation and manage the timing of disk movements. It ensures a smooth and controlled visual representation of the Towers of Hanoi solution.
  7. Off-Screen Canvas (OSC): The program creates an off-screen canvas to improve graphics rendering efficiency. The off-screen canvas is used to draw the current frame, which is then displayed on the screen.