The first statement puts the literal string “mycplus” in read-only memory and copies the string to newly allocated memory on the stack. The second statement is known as static string allocation and definition. This statement places the string “mycplus” in the read-only parts of the memory and making p_name a pointer to that string.
In the C Programming Language, the #ifndef directive checks if the given token has been #defined earlier in the C code. If the token has not been defined earlier then it includes the code between #ifndef and #else. If no #else is present then code between ##ifndef and #endif is included.
Vectors are sequence container (same as dynamic arrays) which resizes itself automatically. The size changes (i.e. vector can shrink or expand as needed at run time) when an element is inserted or deleted, with their storage being handled automatically by the container. Just like arrays, vector elements are placed in adjacent memory locations so that they can be accessed and traversed using iterators i.e. subscript operator .
In C Programming, ternary operator allows executing different code depending on the value of a condition. The returned value is the result of the expression when the code is executed. The main advantage of using ternary operator is to reduce the number of lines of code and improve the performance of application. In C, the real utility of ternary operator is that it is an expression instead of a statement i.e. you can have it on the right-hand side (RHS) of a statement. So you can write certain code statements more concisely.
In C++, files are referred to as flow of streams (data) into and out of programs. Streams are basis data type to handle all input and output (I/O) operations. There are different kinds of streams of data flow for input and output. Each stream is associated with a class, which contains member functions and definitions for dealing with that particular kind of flow.
In C++, ternary operator allows executing different code depending on the value of a condition, and the result of the expression is the result of the executed code. The ternary operator uses 3 operands. It evaluates a condition and after that chooses one of its two branches to execute, depending upon the result of condition. The symbol for ternary operator is “? :”. The syntax for the ternary operator is: ? : ;
Simply speaking, polymorphism is the ability of something to be displayed in multiple forms. Let’s take a real life scenario; a person at the same time can perform several duties as per demand, in the particular scenario. Such as, a man at a same time can serve as a father, as a husband, as a son, and as an employee. So, single person possess different behaviors in respective situations. This is the real life example of polymorphism. Polymorphism is one of the important features of Object Oriented Programming (OOP).
The C and C++ language provides a built-in mechanism, the modulus operator (‘%’), that computes the remainder that results from performing integer division.
In order to find middle element of linked list in one pass, you need to maintain two pointers, one increment at each node while other increments after two nodes at a time. By having this arrangement, when first pointer reaches end, second pointer will point to middle element of linked list.
This post contains lecture notes of “Introduction to C++” course which is taught at MIT OpenCourseWare. OCW is a free and open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum. There’s no signup, no enrollment, and no start or end dates.
The goal of these columns is to explore object-orientation through practical object-oriented programming. This time, we look at C++, but in the future we will explore other areas of object-orientation. Learning an object-oriented language-a whole new way of programming-will pave the way for many exciting topics down the road.