Vectors are sequence container (same as dynamic arrays) which resizes itself automatically. The size changes (i.e. vector can shrink or expand as needed at run time) when an element is inserted or deleted, with their storage being handled automatically by the container. Just like arrays, vector elements are placed in adjacent memory locations so that they can be accessed and traversed using iterators i.e. subscript operator .
In C++, files are referred to as flow of streams (data) into and out of programs. Streams are basis data type to handle all input and output (I/O) operations. There are different kinds of streams of data flow for input and output. Each stream is associated with a class, which contains member functions and definitions for dealing with that particular kind of flow.
In C++, ternary operator allows executing different code depending on the value of a condition, and the result of the expression is the result of the executed code. The ternary operator uses 3 operands. It evaluates a condition and after that chooses one of its two branches to execute, depending upon the result of condition. The symbol for ternary operator is “? :”. The syntax for the ternary operator is: ? : ;
Simply speaking, polymorphism is the ability of something to be displayed in multiple forms. Let’s take a real life scenario; a person at the same time can perform several duties as per demand, in the particular scenario. Such as, a man at a same time can serve as a father, as a husband, as a son, and as an employee. So, single person possess different behaviors in respective situations. This is the real life example of polymorphism. Polymorphism is one of the important features of Object Oriented Programming (OOP).
The C and C++ language provides a built-in mechanism, the modulus operator (‘%’), that computes the remainder that results from performing integer division.
This post contains lecture notes of “Introduction to C++” course which is taught at MIT OpenCourseWare. OCW is a free and open publication of material from thousands of MIT courses, covering the entire MIT curriculum. There’s no signup, no enrollment, and no start or end dates.
The goal of these columns is to explore object-orientation through practical object-oriented programming. This time, we look at C++, but in the future we will explore other areas of object-orientation. Learning an object-oriented language-a whole new way of programming-will pave the way for many exciting topics down the road.
Everyone knows that memory management is a difficult and dangerous chore in C++. This series of three articles will show you that the conventional wisdom is not true. When approached correctly, C++’s seemingly archaic memory-management scheme actually provides an opportunity to create spectacular programs – programs that would not be possible with more modern languages that handle memory automatically.