Encapsulation

Object oriented programming is a new way of approaching the job of programming. Object oriented programming will seem very unnatural to a programmer with a lot of procedural programming experience. This tutorial is the beginning of the definition of object oriented...

Functions in C++

Functions are the building blocks of any programming language. A Function is a self contained block of code with a specific purpose. It has a name that is used to identify and call it for execution. The function name is global, but it is not necessarily unique in C++....

Virtual Functions in C++

Once again we are into a completely new topic with terminology which will be new to you. If you are new to object oriented programming, you should follow along in this tutorial very carefully because every attempt has been made to define every detail of this new and...

Object Oriented Programming Techniques

Any program which uses these five methodologies or any of it, we can call that program object oriented. They are Encapsulation, Data Hiding, Overloading, Polymorphism, Inheritance. Any programming language which supports all of these features and facilitate the programmer in developing the program in these methodologies is called Object Oriented Programming Language i.e. C++, Java, C#.

Compounded Types in C++

Sometimes we need to handle limited set of values which can be referred by labels. For example the day of week, year names etc… 1 i.e. enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun} thisWeek; This concept in C/C++ is called enumeration. Here thisWeek is the...

Multiple Inheritance in C++

C++ version 2.0 was released by AT&T during the summer of 1989, and the major addition to the language is multiple inheritance, the ability to inherit data and methods from more than one class into a subclass. Multiple inheritance and a few of the other additions...

Pointers in C++

The pointer is a variable which holds the memory address of another variable. If one variable contains the address of another variable, the first variable is said to point to the second. There are two types of pointer operators; * and &. the & is a unary operator that returns the memory address of its operand.

More on Encapsulation

The purpose of this tutorial is to illustrate how to use some of the traditional aspects of C or C++ with classes and objects. Pointers to an object as well as pointers within an object will be illustrated. Arrays embedded within an object, and an array of objects...

More on Virtual Functions in C++

This tutorial will actually be a continuation of the topics covered in the last tutorial of Virtual Functions but this will be a fuller explanation of what virtual functions are and how they can be used in a program. We will present a simple database program with a...

Constructors in C++

A constructor is a special method that is created when the object is created or defined. This particular method holds the same name as that of the object and it initializes the instance of the object whenever that object is created. The constructor also usually holds the initialization of the different declared member variables of its object.

Exception Handling

Exceptions are the way of flagging unexpected conditions or errors that have occured in C++ program. Exception Mechanism so far we have handled error conditions by using the if statement to test some expressions and then executing specific code to deal with the error....

Templates in depth

Templates are of great utility to programmers in C++, especially when combined with multiple inheritance and operator overloading. The C++ Standard Template Library (STL) provides many useful functions within a framework of connected templates. As the templates in C++...

Generic algorithms

Algorithms are at the core of computing. To be able to write an algorithm once and for all to work with any type of sequence makes your programs both simpler and safer. The ability to customize algorithms at runtime has revolutionalized software development. The...

Strings in C++

String in C/C++ is not more than a array of characters. String encapsulates the functionality of traversing, replacing, copying of one character array to another. One of the biggest time-wasters in C is using character arrays for string processing: keeping track of...

Advance Exception handling

An exception usually signals an error. Thought it doesn’t always indicate an eror, it can also signal some particularly unusual even in your program that deserves special attention. Exception & Errors Handling No mater how good our program is, it always have...

The Standard C++ Library

The 1998 C++ standard consists of two parts: the core language and the C++ standard library; the latter includes most of the Standard Template Library and a slightly modified version of the C standard library. Many C++ libraries exist which are not part of the...

Introduction to Classes in C++

A class is an organisation of data and functions which operate on them. Data structures are called data members and the functions are called member functions, The combination of data members and member functions constitute a data object or simply an object.

Operator Overloading in C++

Operator Overloading enables us to make the standard operators, like +, -, * etc, to work with the objects of our own data types or classes. We can write a function which redefines a particular operator so that it performs a specific operation when it is used with the object of a class.

Destructors in C++

As opposed to a constructor, a destructor is called when a program has finished using an instance of an object. A destructor does the cleaning behind the scenes. Like the default constructor, the compiler always create a default destructor if you don’t create...