Today I have compiled a list of ten programming languages with their application domains and little historic background. Also I have mentioned the names of the developers of these languages along with their little biography. I hope you will find this article quite useful. The list is developed by researching through language websites, developers’ biographies and other related search engines.

These programming languages include C and C++ programming language, Java, Pascal, Python, Basic programming language, COBOL, FORTRAN, Lisp, Perl, R, Swift, PHP, C# and Go programming language. There are many other languages out there and covering all of the is out of scope of this article.

C Programming Language

The C language is a computer programming language originally developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories to implement the UNIX operating system. Some of its application domains include device drivers, hardware interfacing and embedded system development.

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie was born September 9, 1941. Dennis is an American computer scientist notable for his influence on C and other programming languages, and on operating systems such as Multicast and UNIX. He received the Turing Award in 1983 and the National Medal of Technology in 1998.

C++ Programming Language

The C++ programming language is widely used in the software development industry. Some of its application domains include systems software, operating systems, device drivers, embedded software, high-performance server and client applications, and entertainment software such as video games.

The C++ programming language was designed and implemented by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1985 (First edition). Stroustrup was born in Aarhus Denmark in 1950. He did his Ph. D. in computer science in 1979 from Cambridge University, England. He is the College of Engineering Chair in Computer Science Professor at Texas A&M University.

Java Programming Language

The Java programming language is based on the syntax of C and C++ but has a simpler object model. Though it provides very little lower level functionality. Java is a modern, object-oriented language based on open, public standards.  Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform.

James A. Gosling designed and developed java programming language in 1991. He did the original design of Java and implemented its original compiler and virtual machine. For this achievement he was elected to the United States National Academy of Engineering.

Pascal Programming Language

The Pascal programming language was originally designed and implemented to teach students structured programming.  Pascal is a high level programming language mainly used for Apple Lisa and Macintosh. Pascal has successors, Modula and Oberon, which add module and access to system resources.

The language was designed in 1970 by Nicklaus Wirth to impose programmers a structured programming style. Niklaus Emil Wirth was born in 1934 in Switzerland.  He did his degree in Electronics Engineering in 1959 and in 1963 he was awarded a EECS from the University of California.

Python Programming Language

The Python Programming Language is an interpreted, object-oriented, high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It is designed with the aim to increase programmer’s productivity and ease in use. Python provides multiple programming paradigms and provides easy extensibility.

The Python was designed and developed by Guido van Rossum who is a Dutch computer programmer.

Basic Programming Language

The Basic Programming Language (Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a very powerful language as a tool for the novice programmers. Some of its main features include easy learning for new programmers, designed for interactive use rather than batch work and is therefore suitable for both the professional and non-professional.

The programming language was invented in 1964 by Kemeny and Kurtz. John George Kemeny was born in Hungary on May 31, 1926, and immigrated to the United States with his parents in 1940. Thomas Eugene Kurtz was born in 1928) is an American computer scientist.

COBOL Programming Language

The COBOL Programming Language (Common Business Oriented Language) is one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. The application domains include business applications, finance, and administrative systems for large corporate, companies and governments.

COBOL language is the philosophy of Grace Hopper, William Selden, Gertrude Tierney, Howard Bromberg, Howard Discount, Vernon Reeves, Jean E. Sammet.

FORTRAN Programming Language

The FORTRAN Programming Languages (Formula Translation) was developed by a team of programmers at IBM led by John Backus and was first published in 1957. This is one of the oldest programming languages specifically designed for easy translation of mathematical and statistical formulas into code.

Application domains of FORTRAN include mathematics, scientific formulas translation, statistical and engineering related application development.

Lisp Programming Language

The Lisp Programming Language (or LISP) is a general programming language specially designed for Artificial Intelligence applications. Application areas include Artificial Intelligence, Robots, Computer games, pattern recognition, defense systems and tree traversal.

John McCarthy developed the basic idea of Lisp programming language in 1956 at Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence. John McCarthy was born in 1927, did a B.S. in Mathematics in 1948, McCarthy initially continued his studies at Caltech. He received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Princeton University in 1951.

Perl Programming Language

The Perl Programming Language is a stable, cross platform programming language. Perl is a great language for processing text and automating tasks.It is used for mission critical projects in the public and private sectors and is widely used to program web applications of all needs. Larry Wall designed and developed Perl programming language in 1987.

R Programming Language

R is a programming languages for statistical computation, quantitative analysis and graphics. It compiles/runs on a wide variety of UNIX platforms, Windows and MacOS. R was initially designed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman and developed by R Core Team.

R is a free and integrated software development environment which facilities for data manipulation, calculation and graphical display. It is not an environment within which statistical techniques are implemented but it can be easily extended further via packages.

Swift Programming Language

Swift is an open source, general purpose, multi-paradigm and intuitive programming language for macOS, iOS, watchOS, tvOS etc. It is designed by Chris Lattner, Doug Gregor, John McCall, Ted Kremenek, Joe Groff, and Apple Inc. Initially it was described as “Objective-C without the C”.

It is an alternative to Objective-C with modern theory concepts. It is a safe programming language and does not expose pointers, accessors and introduced namespace system and named parameters.

Go Programming Language

Go is a general purpose, open source and statically typed programming language developed at Google. It was designed by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson. It is sometime refered as “Golang”.

It is mainly influenced by C with emphasis on simplicity and safety. It was designed to keep useful features from other programming languages such as static-typing and run-time efficiency (C++), readability and usability (Python or JavaScript) and high-performance networking and multiprocessing.

C# Programming Language

C# is a programming language of choice for .NET Framework. The syntax of C# is similar to Java Programming language. Anders Hejlsberg, a lead architect at Microsoft, designed C# in 2000.

C# is a general purpose and modern object oriented programming language. It is a type safe and component-oriented programming language. Some of the unique features of C# are nullable types, LINQ and Lambda Expressions.

PHP Internet Programming Language

PHP is the most widely used server-side scripting language. People use PHP to develop dynamic and data driven websites and web applications. It is an open source programming language developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994.

As of June 2021, PHP powers more than 79% of the websites  as per w3tehs. A content management system WordPress, written in PHP, powers more than 42% of the websites on the internet.