More on Virtual Functions in C++

This tutorial will actually be a continuation of the topics covered in the last tutorial of Virtual Functions but this will be a fuller explanation of what virtual functions are and how they can be used in a program. We will present a simple database program with a...

Compounded Types in C++

Sometimes we need to handle limited set of values which can be referred by labels. For example the day of week, year names etc… C i.e. enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun} thisWeek; 1 i.e. enum week{Mon, Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri, Sat, Sun} thisWeek; This...

Pointers in C++

We can say the pointer as a variable which holds the memory address of another variable. If one variable contains the address of another variable, the first variable is said to point to the second. Declaring a Pointer If a variable is holding the address of another...

Constructors in C++

A constructor is a special method that is created when the object is created or defined. This particular method holds the same name as that of the object and it initializes the instance of the object whenever that object is created. The constructor also usually holds...

Destructors in C++

As opposed to a constructor, a destructor is called when a program has finished using an instance of an object. A destructor does the cleaning behind the scenes. Like the default constructor, the compiler always create a default destructor if you don’t create...

Exception Handling

Exceptions are the way of flagging unexpected conditions or errors that have occured in C++ program. Exception Mechanism so far we have handled error conditions by using the if statement to test some expressions and then executing specific code to deal with the error....

Operators Overloading

What is Operator Overloading Operator Overloading enables us to make the standard operators, like +, -, * etc, to work with the objects of our own data types. So what we do is, write a function which redefines a particular operator so that it performs a specific...

Advance Exception handling

An exception usually signals an error. Thought it doesn’t always indicate an eror, it can also signal some particularly unusual even in your program that deserves special attention. Exception & Errors Handling No mater how good our program is, it always have...

The Standard C++ Library

The 1998 C++ standard consists of two parts: the core language and the C++ standard library; the latter includes most of the Standard Template Library and a slightly modified version of the C standard library. Many C++ libraries exist which are not part of the...

Strings in C++

String in C/C++ is not more than a array of characters. String encapsulates the functionality of traversing, replacing, copying of one character array to another. One of the biggest time-wasters in C is using character arrays for string processing: keeping track of...

Templates in depth

Templates are of great utility to programmers in C++, especially when combined with multiple inheritance and operator overloading. The C++ Standard Template Library (STL) provides many useful functions within a framework of connected templates. As the templates in C++...

Graphics in C Language

In a C program, first step is to initialize the graphics drivers on the computer. This is done using the initgraph() method provided in graphics.h  library. In the next few pages we will discuss graphics.h library in more details. Important functions in graphic.h ...