C Programming Tutorials

C Programming Tutorials

The C programming language is a versatile and widely-used programming language which makes it an ideal starting point for novice programmers. Originally developed for UNIX system development, C has evolved to become a go-to language for a variety of applications, including embedded systems, operating systems, and general computer applications.

One of the key features of C is its structured and procedural approach to programming. This means that code is organized in a clear and systematic manner which makes it easier for beginners to understand and work with. Despite its roots in system development, C’s simplicity and user-friendly nature have led to its widespread adoption in application development as well.

These qualities, coupled with its broad applicability, make it an excellent choice for programmers at various skill levels. Additionally, the ease of writing a C compiler has made it one of the earliest high-level languages available on computers, ranging from microcomputers to mainframes.

Whether you are interested in learning about operating systems, embedded systems, or general programming, C serves as a solid foundation. Its straightforward syntax and versatility make it an excellent starting point for those considering diving into more complex languages like C++ or Java. No matter the computer platform or operating system, C is almost universally available, making it a valuable skill for any aspiring programmer.

Table of Contents

Early Development of C Programming Language

Dennis Ritchie, a researcher at Bell Laboratories, introduced the C programming language in 1972. Initially designed for system development under UNIX, C underwent significant standardization efforts throughout the 1970s and 1980s. Various versions of C emerged to cater to different computing platforms. In 1983, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) developed one version known as ANSI-C Programming language, and another version followed in 1990 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).

Why Choose C Language?

The sentiment “You can program anything in C” reflects the language’s versatility, according to experienced C programmers. C provides programmers with unparalleled ease and flexibility by granting full control over every stage of program development. Programmers have authority over program behavior, memory management, and program flow. This level of control has contributed to C’s enduring popularity and its place as a foundational language extensively studied in computer science classes.

The impact of C extends beyond its own use, as it has influenced the design of numerous modern programming languages. Languages such as C++ (for Object-Oriented Programming), Java, Perl, and PHP (for web application development) have roots in the principles and syntax of the C programming language.

Basic Syntax and Structure a C Program

1. The “Hello, World!” Program

Here is the simplest and classis “Hello, World!” program that can be written in C programming language.

#include <stdio.h>

int main()
  printf("Hello, World!");
  return 0;
  • #include <stdio.h>: This line includes the standard input-output library, allowing the use of functions like printf.
  • int main(): Every C program must have a main function. The program execution begins from here. The int before main signifies that the function returns an integer.
  • {}: Curly braces enclose the body of the main function, defining the scope of the program.
  • printf("Hello, World!\n");: This line prints the text “Hello, World!” to the console.
  • return 0;: Indicates a successful execution of the program.

2. Variables and Data Types:

Variables are containers for storing data. In C, you must declare a variable and specify its data type before using it.

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
    // Variable declaration and initialization
    int age = 25;
    float height = 5.9;
    char grade = 'A';

    // Printing variables
    printf("Age: %d\n", age);
    printf("Height: %.2f feet\n", height);
    printf("Grade: %c\n", grade);

    return 0;
  • int, float, char: These are data types representing integers, floating-point numbers, and characters, respectively.
  • %d, %.2f, %c: These are format specifiers used with printf to specify the type of variable being printed.

C’s Influence on Other Languages

The C programming language has significantly shaped the landscape of programming languages and has been a major influence on the development of subsequent languages. Its impact is evident in various aspects, contributing to the evolution of software development practices in the following ways:

Legacy in System Programming: C’s heritage in system programming influenced languages designed for system-level development. C# Programming Language and D, for instance, have drawn inspiration from C in areas like memory management and low-level system interaction. The influence is visible in their syntax and the way they handle system resources.

Popularity and Educational Significance: C’s widespread use in academia and industry has made it a common language taught in computer science courses. As a result, many programmers are introduced to programming through C. This educational significance has influenced languages like Java and C#, which incorporated features that ease the learning curve for beginners, similar to C.

Compilation Model and Interoperability: C’s compilation model, where source code is compiled into machine code, inspired languages like C++ and Objective-C. C++ embraced object-oriented programming while maintaining compatibility with C, allowing for a smooth transition. Objective-C combined C’s procedural features with Smalltalk’s object-oriented capabilities, leading to its adoption in macOS and iOS development.

Low-Level Memory Access: C provides direct access to memory through pointers, allowing programmers fine-grained control over memory management. This low-level memory access influenced languages like C++ and Rust. C++ introduced object-oriented programming while retaining C’s memory manipulation capabilities, and Rust incorporates memory safety features while providing low-level control.

Here are some recommended learning resources for beginners to strengthen their C programming skills

Here’s Must-Read List of C programming books for beginners

C Programming Language, 2nd Edition

With over 600 5-star reviews on Amazon, readers agree that C Programming Language, 2nd Edition by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie is the best C Programming book for Beginners. The authors present the complete guide to ANSI standard C language programming. Written by the developers of C, this new version helps readers keep up with the finalized ANSI standard for C while showing how to take advantage of C’s rich set of operators, economy of expression, improved control flow, and data structures.

21st Century C: C Tips from the New School

Throw out your old ideas about C and get to know a programming language that’s substantially outgrown its origins. With this revised edition of 21st Century C, you’ll discover up-to-date techniques missing from other C tutorials, whether you’re new to the language or just getting reacquainted.

C Programming Absolute Beginner’s Guide

Greg Perry is the author of over 75 computer books and known for bringing programming topics down to the beginner’s level. His book C Programming Absolute Beginner’s Guide, is today’s best beginner’s guide to writing C programs–and to learning skills to use with practically any language. Its simple, practical instructions will help you start creating useful, reliable C code, from games to mobile apps. Plus, it’s fully updated for the new C11 standard and today’s free, open source tools!

C Programming: A Modern Approach, 2nd Edition

KN King tackles on some C standard library specifics header by header in his C Programming: A Modern Approach book. The second edition maintains all the book’s popular features and brings it up to date with coverage of the C99 standard. The new edition also adds a significant number of exercises and longer programming projects, and includes extensive revisions and updates.

Programming Arduino: Getting Started with Sketches

Simon Monk, a Ph.D. in software engineering, writes this great little book for learning to program the arduino using C language. This bestselling guide explains how to write well-crafted sketches using Arduino’s modified C language. You will learn how to configure hardware and software, develop your own sketches, work with built-in and custom Arduino libraries, and explore the Internet of Things—all with no prior programming experience required!

Categories: Tutorials
M. Saqib: Saqib is Master-level Senior Software Engineer with over 14 years of experience in designing and developing large-scale software and web applications. He has more than eight years experience of leading software development teams. Saqib provides consultancy to develop software systems and web services for Fortune 500 companies. He has hands-on experience in C/C++ Java, JavaScript, PHP and .NET Technologies. Saqib owns and write contents on mycplus.com since 2004.
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