Introduction to Classes in C++

The data types we have applied so far to our variables were used to identify individual items. To create more advanced and complete objects, C++ allows you to group these identifiers and create a newly defined object.

An object, such as a CD Player, a printer, a car, etc, is built from assembling various parts. In […]

Arrays in C Programming

What is an Array in C Language?
An array in C Programing Language can be defined as number of memory locations, each of which can store the same data type and which can be references through the same variable name.

An array is a collective name given to a group of similar quantities. These similar quantities could […]

Functions in C Programming

What is a Function?
A function is a block of code that has a name and it has a property that it is reusable i.e. it can be executed from as many different points in a C Program as required.

Function groups a number of program statements into a unit and gives it a name. This unit […]

Input and Output

First of all we need to learn about streams in C Programming. All C Programming input and output is done with streams, no matter where input is coming from or where output is going to. This is the standard way of handling all input and output and has definite advantages for the programmer. A library package has been evolved which is known as known as the ?Standard I/O Library? which is used in any C program by using stdio.h header. Of course, now that we know its importance, it is essential that we understand what streams are and how they work. First, however, we need to understand exactly what the terms input and output mean in context of C.
The C programming language provides input and output support using library functions, which gives an advantage to system designers to tailor their input and output on their own.
What Exactly Is Program Input/Output?
A C program keeps data in random access memory (RAM) while executing. This data is in the form of variables, structures, and arrays that have been declared by the program. The question is where did this data come from, and what can the program do with it?

Data can come from some location external to the program. Data moved from an external location into RAM, where the program can access it, is called input. The keyboard and disk files are the most common sources of program input.
Data can also be sent to a location external to the program; this is called output. The most common destinations for output are the screen, a printer, and disk files.

Input sources and output destinations are collectively referred to as devices. The keyboard is a device; the screen is a device, and so on. Some devices (the keyboard) are for input only, others (the screen) are for output only, and still others (disk files) are for both input and output. Whatever the device, and whether it’s performing input or output, C carries out all input and output operations by means of streams.
What is a Stream?
A stream is a sequence of characters. More exactly, it is a sequence of bytes of data. A sequence of bytes flowing into a program is an input stream; a sequence of bytes flowing out of a program is an output stream. By focusing on streams, we don’t have to worry as much about where they’re going or where they originated.

The major advantage of streams, therefore, is that input/output programming is device independent. Programmers don’t need to write special input/output functions for each device (keyboard, disk, and so on). The program sees input/output as a continuous stream of bytes no matter where the input is coming from or going to.

Every C stream is connected to a file. In this context, the term file doesn’t refer to a disk file. Rather, it is an intermediate step between the stream that the program deals with and the actual physical device being used for input or output. For the most part, the beginning C programmer doesn’t need to be concerned with these files, because the details of interactions between streams, files, and devices are taken care of automatically by the C library functions and the operating system.
Modes of Streams in C Language
C streams can be divided into two modes: text and binary.
Text Stream
A text stream consists only of characters, such as text data being sent to the screen. Text streams are organized into lines, which can be up to 255 characters long and are terminated by an end-of-line, or newline, character. Certain characters in a text stream are recognized as having special meaning, such as the newline character.
Binary Stream
A binary stream can handle any sort of data, including, but not limited to, text data. Bytes of data in a binary stream aren’t translated or interpreted in any special way; they are read and written exactly as-is. Binary streams are used primarily with disk files.
Predefined Streams
ANSI C has three predefined streams, also referred to as the standard input/output files. If you’re programming for an IBM-compatible PC running DOS, two additional standard streams are available to you. These streams are automatically opened when a C program starts executing and are closed when the program terminates. The programmer doesn’t need to take any special action to make these streams available. Table lists the standard streams and the devices they normally are connected with. All five of the standard streams are text-mode streams.

The five standard streams.


Standard Input

Standard Output

Standard Error

Standard Printer
Printer (LPT1)

Standard Auxiliary
Serial Port (COM1)

(*) Supported only under DOS

Whenever we have to use the printf() or puts() functions to display text on-screen, we use the stdout stream. Likewise, when we use gets() or scanf() to read keyboard input, we use the stdin stream. The standard streams are opened automatically, but other streams, such as those used to manipulate information stored on disk, must be opened explicitly.

Loops and Decision – if else, for and while

C language programes are executed in a sequence, but we can control the execution of C program by using any control mechanism by which we can compare things and come to a decision. This involves using some operations called Relational Operators, conditional statements called if-else and loops. We have fundamental operators to compare two […]

Microsoft Direct-X Programming

Before the release of Windows 95, most games were developed and released for
the Microsoft Disk Operating System (DOS) platform, usually using something
like DOS4GW or some other 32-bit DOS extender to obtain access to 32-bit protected
mode. Windows 95, however, seemed to signal the beginning of the end of the
DOS prompt. Game developers began to wonder how […]

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C# Programming Tutorials

In June 2000, Microsoft announced both the .NET platform and a new programming
language called C#. C# is a simple, modern, object oriented, and type-safe programming
language derived from C and C++. C# (pronounced “C sharp”) is firmly
planted in the C and C++ family tree of languages, and will immediately be familiar
to C and C++ programmers. C# […]

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Object Oriented Programming

Since the invention of the computer, many programming approaches have been tried. These included techniques such as modular programming, top-down programming, bottom-up programming and structured programming. The primary motivation in each case has been the concern to handle the increasing complexity of programs that are reliable and maintainable. These techniques […]

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